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How did the Cherokee Nation resist removal

How did the Cherokee attempt to resist removal by the

  1. The Cherokee generally attempted to resist removal by the United States through negotiations and legal proceedings. In 1825, the Cherokee established a capital in Georgia, created a written..
  2. And the Cherokee Nation ended up taking the state of Georgia to court. Chuck Hoskin, Jr. Cherokee Nation Principal Chief: We took a lot of steps to resist removal. One of the things we did was to tell our story that we had been here before there was a United States. That we had a rightful claim to the land and its resources
  3. The Cherokee nation appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States. The Cherokee nation won their appeal in the Court but President Jackson refused to obey the Supreme Court. The trail of tears, the forced removal of the Cherokee from their lands to the territory of Oklahoma went ahead by executive orders of President Jackson even after the Supreme Court upheld the appeal of the Cherokee.
  4. The Cherokee generally attempted to resist removal by the United States through negotiations and legal proceedings. In 1830, when the state of Georgia attempted to confiscate Cherokee lands, the case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court in two separate cases. The court refused to hear The Cherokee Nation v. Click to see full answe
  5. The Trail of Tears: A Story of Cherokee Removal. The Cherokee Nation tried many different strategies to avoid removal by the United States government. Cherokee Fishermen, 2008. Acrylic on canvas by Gebon Barnoski. Courtesy of Cherokee Nation Businesses

In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to negotiate removal treaties. With Congress and the president pursuing a removal policy, the Cherokee Nation, led by John Ross, asked the U.S. Supreme Court to intervene on its behalf and protect it from Georgia's trespasses. In Cherokee Nation v How did the Cherokee Nation resist removal? Part A—Protecting Homelands: Summarize Directions: Resistance requires sustained efforts to preserve and protect what is important to a group of people. Look back to the sources in Early History and Relationships between Nations (Chapter 1) and summarize why and how the Cherokee Nation protected its homelands before removal

Removal of the Cherokee Natio

The Cherokee Nation tried many different strategies to resist removal. While not all efforts were successful, the Cherokee did find ways tosovereignty. Today, the Cherokee continue to find opportunities to celebrate and sustain important cultural values and practices. rebuild, renew, and sustain their nation's culture an Question and answer. How did the Cherokee tribe resist being moved? The Cherokee tribe resisted being moved by creating a formal Cherokee constitution, negotiating the Treat of 1819, and proceeding with legal action within the Supreme Court. [ ] Log in for more information. This answer has been confirmed as correct and helpful The Cherokee Nation was one of many Native Nations to lose its lands to the United States. The Cherokee tried many different strategies to avoid removal, but eventually, they were forced to move The Cherokees resisted removal by setting up their own national government which they based off the model for the U.S. Constitution. For their Chief they elected John Ross. After the Indian Removal Act was passed, the Cherokee nation began to protest because they were unwilling to move from their land

How did the Cherokee use the courts to resist removal from

  1. The Cherokee government opposed it, but the US Senate approved the treaty by a margin of only one vote. Cherokees peacefully resisted Removal and ignored the deadline set by the US for voluntary Removal. When the deadline passed, 7,000 US and Georgia Guard soldiers drove Cherokee families from their homes at bayonet point
  2. Though the Cherokee had been resisting social forces trying to displace them, legal pressure began to mount to allow access to the land and to remove the Cherokee from it
  3. ole in Florida resisted removal by the United States Army for decades (1817-1850) with guerrilla warfare, part of the intermittent Native American Wars that lasted from 1540 to 1924
  4. Each side--the Treaty Party and Ross's supporters--accused the other of working for personal financial gain. Ross, however, had clearly won the passionate support of the majority of the Cherokee nation, and Cherokee resistance to removal continued. In December 1835, the U.S. resubmitted the treaty to a meeting of 300 to 500 Cherokees at New Echota
  5. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson won approval of the Indian Removal Act, gaining the power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. These two accounts document resistance of the Cherokees to their removal, whether by direct or by indirect measures. from Voices of a People's Histor
  6. The removal, or forced emigration, of Cherokee Indians occurred in 1838, when the U.S. military and various state militias forced some 15,000 Cherokees from their homes in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee and moved them west to Indian Territory (now present-day Oklahoma). Now known as the infamous Trail of Tears, the removal of the Cherokee Nation fulfilled federal and state.
  7. In the end, the Cherokee nation resisted their removal and was forcibly removed from their lands on the Trail of Tears. Become a member and unlock all Study Answers Try it risk-free for 30 day

What did the Cherokee do to resist removal

Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Choctaw, and Seminole, strenuously resisted removal. The Cherokees were the last to sign a treaty of removal, and that treaty, signed in 1835, was signed by a minority faction whose authority was questionable. The Cherokees continued to resist until 1837, when the United States Army bega Despite the United States' ratification of the Treaty of New Echota, most Cherokees refused to leave their homes in the Southeast. As the 1838 deadline for removal approached, President Martin Van..

Cherokee Nation barely had time to rebuild after the war before another threat loomed—allotment. Cherokees owned their land collectively and the concept of individual land ownership was foreign. By the late 1800s, sentiment in the U.S. turned towards moving Indians to reservations and opening their lands for occupation and westward expansion a. A stationary object tends to resist being moved. b. A moving object tends to resist a change in speed. c. A moing object tends to resist a change in direction d. all of the . history. How did the 1839 Act of Union affect the Cherokee? A. It gave the Cherokee their own lands for the first time. B. It forced the Cherokee to merge with the. What actions did leaders of the Cherokee Nation take to resist removal? 4. What effect did the Treaty of New Echota have on Cherokee resistance to removal? 5. What was the U.S. government's response to the Cherokee petition against the Treaty of New Echota? 6. What difficult decisions did leaders of the Cherokee Nation face during their. In May of 1838, the U.S. Army, led by General Winfield Scott, entered the Cherokee Nation, rounded up the Cherokee people and began the forced removal west to Indian Territory. This awful event would become known as the Trail of Tears, and it is estimated that some 16,000 Cherokees started the journey and about 4,000 were lost along the way

Creek War of 1813-14 | Encyclopedia of Alabama

Cherokee Removal New Georgia Encyclopedi

The Cherokee mounted a nonviolent campaign to resist the displacement forces of the Georgian and Federal government. In the years preceding the Removal Act the Cherokee nation took actions to organize and establish themselves as a people. In 1825, they established a capital at New Echota, Georgia Many Cherokee believed that they could avoid removal by adopting the contemporary culture of white people. They invited missionaries to set up schools where Cherokee children learned how to read. Way up north in the Cherokee Nation. Division Among the Cherokees. Adding to the Cherokees' troubles, the tribe split over whether to accept or resist removal. A small minority argued that the Cherokees could not stop the land-hungry whites and the only hope for surviving as a tribe was to emigrate west

What impact did the Indian Removal Act have on the Cherokee Nation? A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy. During the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839, the Cherokees were forcibly moved west by the United States government Another way Hoskin said the Cherokees resisted removal was through the founding of the Cherokee Phoenix, which was the first Native American newspaper Hoskin said the newspaper, which published in Cherokee and English, allowed the nation to inform the white settlers and Cherokee people of current events

Summarize: How did the Cherokee resist removal from their land? (1-2 sentences) In 1832 the Supreme Court agreed. Led by Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court decided in the case. The exhibition, After Removal: Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation, tells the story of the Cherokee Nation in the 19th century through the stark contrasts of the human experience — discord and harmony, war and peace, success and failure — and in the end, the creation of a solid foundation for the future of the Cherokee people. Beginning in the late 18th century, Cherokee leaders embarked on a. Among the various removals, the story of the Cherokee remains particularly brutal. In 1835, a portion of the Cherokee Nation signed the Treaty of New Echota, ceding lands in Georgia for five million dollars. Most of the tribe refused to adhere to the terms. In 1838, President Martin van Buren sent in the army to forcibly remove the Cherokee Jackson did not succeed in convincing legislators to abandon treaty-making; instead he cynically used treaties to expel five large southern tribes. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the President to negotiate treaties for the removal of eastern Indian nations and appropriated $500,000 to accomplish that goal

American Indian Removal Cherokee Resistance

  1. In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the Trail of Tears, because of its devastating effects
  2. The adoption of white culture did not protect the Cherokee. After gold was discovered on their land in Georgia, their treaty rights were ignored. Georgia leaders began preparing for the Cherokee's removal. When they refused to move, the Georgia militia began attacking Cherokee towns. In response, the Cherokee sued the state
  3. ated in the signing of the Treaty of New Echota
  4. Did the Cherokee resist removal? The Cherokee Nation, led by Principal Chief John Ross, resisted the Indian Removal Act, even in the face of assaults on its sovereign rights by the state of Georgia and violence against Cherokee people

The state legislature had written this law to justify removing white missionaries who were helping the Indians resist removal. The court this time decided in favor of the Cherokee Visitors to the museum can also see the exhibition Trail of Tears: The Story of Cherokee Removal, produced by the Cherokee Nation. The treaty installation coincided with the opening of the. In response, the Cherokee resisted relocation, but individuals within the Cherokee Nation did so in different ways. To help students gain a broader understanding of how Native Americans responded to this removal, iCivics has released a new DBQuest examining the response of one group, the Cherokee Nation, and how they advocated for their. Winfield Scott, a military commander at the time, was in charge of the removal of the Cherokee Nation. The first three detachments of Cherokees began the journey to Oklahoma in June 1838 During those vibrant years some of its students were the offspring of Cherokee leaders, who believed that the best way for the Cherokees to preserve their independent homeland was to create an educated elite who could lead the efforts of the Cherokee Nation to resist the persistent encroachment on their lands and resources

But when the tribe wrote its constitution in 1827, the Georgia government saw the move as an assertion of Cherokee sovereignty - that the tribe could become an independent nation within the state of Georgia. The 1830 Indian Removal Bill, backed by President Andrew Jackson, was the first step towards removing the Cherokees from their land for good The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI), (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᏱ ᏕᏣᏓᏂᎸᎩ, Tsalagiyi Detsadanilvgi) is a federally recognized Indian Tribe based in Western North Carolina in the United States. They are descended from the small group of 800-1000 Cherokee who remained in the Eastern United States after the US military, under the Indian Removal Act, moved the other 15,000 Cherokee. John Ross was born on October 3, 1790. His Cherokee name was Tsan-Usdi, which means Little John. When he grew up, he became Chief of the United Cherokee Nation. John Ross and many Cherokee tried to resist the 1830 Indian Removal Act that forced them from their land

The Cherokee generally attempted to resist removal by the United States through negotiations and legal proceedings. In 1825, the Cherokee established a capital in Georgia, created a written constitution, and declared themselves a sovereign nation The American Indian Removal policy of President Andrew Jackson was prompted by the desire of White settlers in the South to expand into lands belonging to five Indigenous tribes. After Jackson succeeded in pushing the Indian Removal Act through Congress in 1830, the U.S. government spent nearly 30 years forcing Indigenous peoples to move westward, beyond the Mississippi River Most settled in what became the Delaware District of the Cherokee Nation. Resistance in the Mountains. Though most North Carolina Cherokees submitted to forced removal, several hundred, especially those from the Aquohee and Tahquohee Districts, continued to resist, hiding in remote sections of the mountains and working to avoid the pursuing.

In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, Wirt argued that the Cherokee constituted an independent foreign nation, and that an injunction (a stop) should be placed on Georgia laws aimed at eradicating them. In 1831, the Supreme Court found the Cherokee did not meet the criteria for being a foreign nation Cherokee who signed the treaty did not represent the entire Cherokee nation and had no authority to sign the treaty. He argued that the Cherokee should continue to find ways to resist removal. The U.S. Senate, after intense debate, ratified [approved] the treaty by a vote of 28-19. 7 The Cherokee government continued to resist, leaders insisting (correctly) that the Treaty Party did not represent the tribal majority. In 1838, however, federal troops began to implement the agreement, gathering Cherokees together for the long journey west

Cherokee Removal Essay. 1316 Words 6 Pages. Show More. Americans subjected the Cherokee to harsh treatment and force migration during the Jacksonian era known as the Trail of Tears. The controversy and debate surrounding Cherokee removal reached national level and is often cited for President Andrew Jackson's hate for Native Americans The Cherokee Nation is the direct, lineal descendant of the sovereign tribal government that presided over much of the southeastern United States before European colonization. The major concentration of contemporary Cherokees lies in fourteen northeastern Oklahoma counties within the original 1835 tribal treaty boundaries

How did the Cherokee tribe resist being moved

The Cherokee generally attempted to resist removal by the United States through negotiations and legal proceedings. In 1830, when the state of Georgia attempted to confiscate Cherokee lands, the case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court in two separate cases. The court refused to hear The Cherokee Nation v Memorial of the Cherokee Nation (1830) Chief John Ross, et al. did not resist Georgia but actively set about carrying out a policy of Indian Removal. if it did? The forcible removal of the Cherokee from the American Southeast was neither the first nor las How did the Cherokee resist removal? In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to negotiate removal treaties. With Congress and the president pursuing a removal policy, the Cherokee Nation, led by John Ross, asked the U.S. Supreme Court to intervene on its behalf and protect it from Georgia's trespasses As part of the Remember the Removal experience, participants take classes in Cherokee language, Cherokee history, and genealogy to uncover and connect with their roots. The ride was cancelled last year due to COVID-19, but three of the selected EBCI 2020 riders were able to sign on for the 2021 ride, along with six riders from Cherokee Nation John Ross, the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation of Indians, and the Memorial and Protest of the Cherokee Nation had similar issues with the removal policy, in that the New Echota treaty was viewed as fraudulent. Ross did state that they would not object to becoming citizens and conforming to the country's laws

The Trail of Tears: A Story of Cherokee Removal Resource

How did Native Americans, specifically the Cherokees

Cherokee Name. Cherokee (pronounced CHAIR-uh-key).The name comes from the Creek word chelokee, which means people of a different speech. The Cherokee refer to themselves as Ani'-Yun'wiya', meaning the real people or the principal people or Tsalagi, which comes from a Choctaw word for people living in a land of many caves. The tribe's original name was Kituwah. The Cherokee Nation argued that U.S. Indian removal policies were illegal because they violated previous treaties and were not made with the official consent of the Cherokee Nation. In addition, the policies violated American ideals, such as respect for other people's rights Did the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee? Although the Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee, Georgia ignored the decision and in 1838 the Cherokee were forcibly relocated to present-day Oklahoma. Above, a rendition of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears. In the cases Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v Neither did the Cherokee side with the British in the War of 1812, for once making the right choice. The Creeks, their traditional enemy, did side with both Tecumseh and the British, and the Cherokee helped an American general named Andrew Jackson in his campaigns to subdue the Creeks So the Cherokee leaders devised innovative means of meeting this new crisis head on by engaging in a nation-building campaign of their own and then, in classic American fashion, by taking Georgia to court. The Cherokee used strategic accommodation to reinforce their separate nationality, resist removal, and preserve their aboriginal lands

Trail of Tears National Historical Trail | HISTORY OF THE

Indian Treaties and the Removal Act of 1830. The Cherokee Nation resisted, however, challenging in court the Georgia laws that restricted their freedoms on tribal lands. In his 1831 ruling on Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall declared. The Cherokee resisted removal by legal means, petitioning the United States Supreme Court for relief from Georgia's anti-Cherokee laws, arguing that the laws were unconstitutional and violated treaties with the Cherokee. They eventually won their case in 1832 with the Court ruling in Worcester vs. Georgia that the Cherokee nation is a. Way up north in the Cherokee Nation. Division among the Cherokees Adding to the Cherokees' troubles, the tribe split over whether to accept or resist removal. A small minority argued that the Cherokees could not stop the land-hungry whites and the only hope for surviving as a tribe was to emigrate west. Longtim From 1817 to 1827, the Cherokees effectively resisted ceding their full territory by creating a new form of tribal government based on the United States government. Rather than being governed by a traditional tribal council, the Cherokees wrote a constitution and created a two-house legislature. In addition to this government, Cherokees learned to speak English and created

The Failure of Cherokee Removal, 1836-1838 By Carl J. Vipperman December 29, 1835, while Principal Chief John Ross and the regularly constituted authorities of the Cherokee Nation were on their way to Washington, D.C., twenty Cherokees of the pro-removal minority signed the fatal and fraudulent Treaty of New Echota. This unauthorized act car Native Americans objected removal and conflict arose when tribes resisted. They believed the government's treatment was a form of tyranny. The government refused to compromise and wanted removal treaties signed by any means necessary eventual forced removal to Indian Territory, effect of the Civil War, and struggle to resist the federal government's goal to twist the Commerce Clause and various treaties in order to greatly diminish the Cherokees' rights as a sovereign nation Cherokee Petition Protesting Removal, 1836. Native Americans responded differently to the constant encroachments and attacks of American settlers. Some resisted violently. Others worked to adapt to American culture and defend themselves using particularly American weapons like lawsuits and petitions. The Cherokee did more to adapt than perhaps. At the time of its removal, the Cherokee Nation was well-established with a successful government, an agricultural economy, a tribal religion and spoken and written languages. The tribe had a 90.

Some Native American tribes, like the Seminole tribe of Florida, physically resisted removal from their lands. Others fought using legal means. In the case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831), the Cherokee tribe asserted that Georgia laws passed to take their lands were a violation of previous land treaties. The Supreme Court dismissed the. Enslavement and Identity Among the Cherokee. The institution of slavery in the United States long pre-dates the enslaved African trade. But by the late 1700s, the practice of enslaving people by southern Indigenous nations—the Cherokee in particular—had taken hold as their interactions with Euro-Americans increased Indian Treaties and the Removal Act of 1830. The Cherokee Nation resisted, however, challenging in court the Georgia laws that restricted their freedoms on tribal lands. In his 1831 ruling on Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall declared that the Indian territory is admitted to compose a part of the United. Weegy: The Seminole tribe resisted government authority by: They fought a war against the United States. Score 1 User: How did the Cherokee tribe resist being moved Weegy: The Cherokee tribe resisted being moved by creating a formal Cherokee constitution, negotiating the Treat of 1819, and proceeding with legal action within the Supreme Court.

Ross O. Swimmer, the Chief of Cherokee Nation, issued an executive order in 1983 requiring that all citizens have a Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood in order to vote INDIAN REMOVAL. In the first four decades of the nineteenth century the United States cajoled, bribed, arrested, and ultimately forced approximately seventy thousand American Indians out of their ancestral lands in the American South. Although Pres. Andrew Jackson is often deemed the architect of this program, the removal of the Chickasaw. 2. According to the treaty, what do the Cherokee promise to do in return for peace? 3. List three things the government agrees to do to help the Cherokee removal be more comfortable. 4. According to the treaty, which group has the final say in Cherokee possessions, the United States Government or the Cherokee nation

Cherokee Removal Visit Cherokee Natio

  1. Native American History, Topic 5: Assimilation and Removal and Memorial of the Cherokee Nation (1830) Background: During the first four decades of the nineteenth century, the United States government attempted to solve the problem of native peoples who lived east of the Mississipp
  2. The Cherokee Removal, Perdue and Green show the trials that the Cherokee faced in the years from 1700 to 1840. This book shows how the Americans tried to remove these Indians from the southeastern part of the United States. The Cherokees tried to overcome the attempts of removal, but finally in 1838, they were removed from the area
  3. removal opposition and resistance were measurements that attempted to equate a non-white culture with white America. In addition, civilization created the crucial fissure among the Cherokee elite by instilling nationalism into the elite men of Cherokee Nation. As time wore on, 3. Wilson Lumpkin, The Removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgi

Cherokee campaign against displacement, 1827-1838 Global

Feb. 25, 2021. The Cherokee Nation, for the first time, has asked Jeep to change the name of its Grand Cherokee vehicle, a move that the carmaker, preparing to release the next generation of the. Way up north in the Cherokee Nation. Division Among the Cherokees. Adding to the Cherokees' troubles, the tribe split over whether to accept or resist removal. A small minority argued that the Cherokees could not stop the land-hungry whites and the only hope for surviving as a tribe was to emigrate west. Longtim

Cherokee removal - Wikipedi

The first English traders meet the Cherokee. The next white men the Cherokee saw did not come in groups of seven hundred or a thousand. They came as individuals or partnerships, and they came to trade. It was through this process that the Cherokee first acquired the goods of the white men, which would come to change their culture so drastically The Cherokee syllabary traces back more than 180 years to the original homelands of the tribe before its forced removal on the Trail of Tears. At the time of its removal, the Cherokee Nation was well-established with a successful government, an agricultural economy, a tribal religion and spoken and written languages President Jackson and the Removal of the Cherokee Indians. The decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee. Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830's was more a. reformulation of the national policy that had been in effect since the. 1790's than a change in that policy. The dictum above is firm and can be Cherokee, Cheyenne, Seminoles Option #2 During the nineteenth-century, the federal Indian policy changed and it forced the removal or relocation of many different Indian tribes. The federal government sought to expand its control of territory and resources across America. The one big problem the U.S. faced were the Indians who resisted their. As the Indian-removal procedure went on, iIn 1836, the government drove the Indians from their land. 3,500 of the 15,000 who set out for the trip did not survive. History.org says that The cherokee of Georgia used legal action to resist. and that most of the Cherokee people weren't frontier savages

Trail of Tears. In 1838 Cherokee people were forcibly moved from their homeland and relocated to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. They resisted their Removal by creating their own newspaper, The Cherokee Phoenix, as a platform for their views. They sent their educated young men on speaking tours throughout the United States Historical Context. It was US President Andrew Jackson 's policy to removing Native Americans from their ancestral lands to make way for settlers and speculators that led to the infamous Trail of Tears in the 1830s. The Cherokees of Georgia initially tried legal means to resist the policy and actually won their case in the US Supreme Court Only one group of Indians -- the Seminoles -- successfully resisted removal and they did so fiercely. Their resistance to removal brought about the Second Seminole War. It began on December 28, 1835, when a column of 108 soldiers led by Major Dade was massacred by Seminole warriors at the Dade Battle in Sumpter County

The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the

  1. ole, or the Five Tribes) also participated in chattel and race-based slavery, was rarely acknowledged in the historical annals. Only in the latter part of the 20th century did historians begin to address this oversight
  2. John Ross. John Ross was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee in 1790; he was a mixed blood Cherokee named Cooweescoowe. He became principal chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1828, and although he resisted the removal of his people from their native lands, was forced to lead them to the Indian Territory (modern Oklahoma) in 1838-39
  3. At the time of its removal, the Cherokee Nation was well-established with a successful government, an agricultural economy, a tribal religion and spoken and written languages. The tribe had a 90%.

Sequoyah, a blacksmith, trader, silversmith and soldier in the War of 1812, introduced the official Cherokee syllabary in 1821 after years of development. The syllabary would be the foundation of Cherokee resistance to removal. We did a couple things (to resist removal) we reorganized our government (with) a written constitution, Hoskin said A few years before the forced removal, some Cherokee had agreed to leave their homes and move west. Those who were on the Trail of Tears were those who held out and resisted to the end, Dexter said The Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, pronounced Tsalagihi Ayeli [1]) of the 19th century was a legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907. Often referred to simply as The Nation by its inhabitants, it should not be confused with what is known in the 21st century as the Cherokee Nation

assignment for the class duties for creating rough draft: alexis: explaining and analyzing the social and economic reasons the southern tribes were remove