Political development in Nigeria PDF

(PDF) The Military and Political Development in Nigeria

patibility or need but rather to advance political agenda. This major shortcoming partly explains the misplaced rationale of concentrating social, in-dustrial and development infrastructure in major cities like Lagos, Abuja, Kano, Port Harcourt, etc., which serve as the centres of political power for the ruling elites Democracy and Good Governance in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects . By Dr. Linus Ugwu Odo. Abstract-After 55 years of political independence, Nigeria continues to grapple with the challenges of democratic transformation and good governance. All efforts by successive civilia socio-economic, political as well as religious advance-ment of a country or nation. This is best achieved through development planning, which can be described as the country's collection of strategies mapped out by the government. National development plans in Nigeria We have had series of development plans in Nigeria

The military entered the political scene in Nigeria with the coup of Major General Aguyi Ironsi of January 1966. This was followed in July 1966 by another counter coup as a result of breakdown in the internal cohesion and discipline within the armed forces, especially the army. Since then, the military has gone o The Hisrory and Development of Political Parties In Nigeria. The history of political parties in Nigeria began when the first political party in Nigeria was established in 1959, the year before Nigeria gained her independence from Great Britain. In 1959, there were three political parties in the country and they include the following: National. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance Volume VII, No. 7.1 Quarter I 2016 ISSN: 0976 - 1195 1 LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS Oboma Daniel ebun Lecturer in the Department of Political Science & International Relations, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria ABSTRAC The Politics of Oil in Nigeria: Transparency and Accountability for Sustainable Development in the Niger Delta Esekumemu Victor Clark, D.Phil (Vienna) Department of Political Science Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria Abstract The discovery of crude oil in Nigeria led to the neglect of agriculture that was the mainstay of the economy Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org) 63 ISSN: 2052-6350(Print), ISSN: 2052-6369(Online) THE LEGISLATURE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE Edet J. Tom Ph.D and Amadu J. Attai Ph.D Department of Political Science and Public Administration University of Uyo, Nigeria

Nigeria and effecting of rapid and competitive development of the different regions of the country among other factors consists the need for restructuring; while elite interest, fear of ethnic dominations, political idiosyncrasy among others construe the challenges facing political restructuring in Nigeria of the Political Bureau formed the basis for the 224-page final Report. The Report is organized into 13 chapters. The first three review and interpret Nigeria's social context, political history, and political economy. Part II, A New Political Order for Nigeria, consists of nine chapters. The first six deal with a philosophy o the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis. Keywords: Urbanization, Developing Countries, Politics in Africa, African Cities, Colonial Era JEL Code Classification: E26, F54, N97, N47, N1

Political Development In Nigeri

  1. assessment of the capacity of political parties in Nigeria. The assessment is based on research and analysis carried out in Abuja between October and December, 2012, which included consultation with party executives from a wide spectrum of Nigeria's political parties, including all th
  2. g and wanto
  3. political violence thereby leading to social disintegration of Nigerians. Based on the foregoing major assumptions of the theory, the perspective has been adopted as the theoretical guide on the study of the effects of political violence on social development in Nigeria. Brief History of Political Violence in Nigeria
  4. Nigeria politics has been characterized by godfatherism, party politics, tribal and religious politics and money-bag politics (Bernard, 2009). Though, Godfatherism in Nigeria politics is . godfather and godson.Thegrave political development crisis has generated a growing body o
  5. the critical governance challenges facing Nigeria and recommended accountability and ethical principles for democracy to blossom. Keywords: Democracy, Good Governance, Corruption, Human Rights, Electoral Reform. Introduction May 29, 1999 marked a watershed in Nigeria's political annals. It was the dawn of the fourth Republic, a return t
  6. But, godfatherism has taken a strange dimension in Nigeria's political environment. It has become a menace pulling down the foundations of masses-driven governance, thereby denying Nigerians the much-deserved dividends of democracy. History of Godfatherism in Nigeria PoliticsThe political godfather phenomenon is not new in Nigeria
  7. ed the menace of political godfatherism, one of the major internal factors hindering the advancement of the democratization process and development of Nigeria in order to validate Rostow thesis. The study employed the descriptive approac

Department Of Political Science, Caritas University Amoji Nike Enugu Abstract Democracy encourages the citizens to take part in the political process and at different levels through different means .This paper examines the concept of democracy, elections and political participation in Nigeria since the return of democracy in Nigeria 1999 to 2 011 Benue rivers. The Nok achieved a level of material development not repeated in the region for nearly 1,000 years. Long before 1500, much of present-day Nigeria was divided into states, which can still be linked to the modern ethnic groups that trace their history to the origins of these states. These earl

History and Development of Political Parties in Nigeri

  1. political environment and try to mitigate its effects so as to ensure sustained growth in Nigeria. Keywords: Political Stability, Economic Growth and ARDL Model. I. Introduction The importance of political stability to economic development of any country has become a topic of a continuous debate among economists, political scientists and.
  2. in Nigeria since 1999 is growing and spreading speedily and destructively in Anambra, Enugu, Kwara, Oyo, Ogun, and lately Benue State, vividly illustrate the deleterious impact of unregulated political finance on democratic development in Nigeria (Obiorah 2004:vi-viii)
  3. Module 4 Military Leadership in Nigeria n Politics Unit 1 The Military Intervention In Nigerian Politics Unit 2 Towards Military Disengagement Unit 3 Achievements of Military Regime in Nigeria Textbooks and References Certain books have been recommended in the course. The student may wish to purchase them for further reading..

Nigeria democracy is truncated, thus, the inevitability of military intervention in Nigeria politics. At independence in 1960, Nigeria opted for West Minster model of constitution and the court of final appeal was the Privy Council in England. In 1963, Nigeria became a Republic an THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF STATE CREATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA Dele Adetoye, PhD Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, NIGERIA ABSTRACT The study is a longitudinal historical analysis of state creation exercise and its potentials for jumpstarting socioeconomic development among the people of benefiting areas in Nigeria enormous impact on the political development of Nigeria. Furthermore, Prof. Olayiwola Abegunrin cited by Abidde (2012) recently accused the military of destroying Nigeria's institutions by some of the policies they promulgated and pursued, beginning in the General Yakubu Gowon era. He posited that some of the policies they pursued, along with. Democracy and Good Governance in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects . By Dr. Linus Ugwu Odo. Abstract-After 55 years of political independence, Nigeria continues to grapple with the challenges of democratic transformation and good governance. All efforts by successive civilia

Political Developments in Nigeria: A Review Essa

  1. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance Volume VI, No. 6.3 Quarter III 2015 ISSN: 0976 - 1195 1 RELIGION AND POLITICS IN NIGERIA Roseline Morenike Oshewolo and Borok Andrew Maren Department of History and International Studies, Federal University, Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria ABSTRAC
  2. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE Title page i Certification ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Table of content vii List of Tables x Abstract xii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study 1 1.2 Statement of Research problem 6 1.3 Objectives of study 10 1.4 Statement of Hypotheses 10 1.5 Significance of study 12 1.6 Scope and limitations 13 1.7.
  3. Get free Research Paper on Political elite and development crisis in Nigeria project topics and materials in Nigeria. This is approved for students in accountancy, business, computer science, economics, engineering, arts. The importance, effect, causes, relationship, comparison, history, role, solutions are discusse
  4. es, investigates, and surveys opinion of Nigerians on some of the factors that influence party and party system development in Nigeria, using data elicited from the three Senatorial Districts of Edo State, Nigeria
  5. es the remote and immediate causes as well as the aftermath of military coups on Nigerian political
  6. political and social communities called federalism. It was observed that during the British colonial era, the British colonial power deliberately imposed the federal system on Nigeria in order to maintain a post colonial control of the country after political independence. Nigeria was a large country comprising more than 400 ethnic group

Diagnosis of Nigeria: the case of Northern Nigeria - 6 - identity. Under both military and civil rule, religion has continued to gain prominence in political discourse and competition. Educational Development in Northern Nigeria In northern Nigeria, there are three main educational traditions; the indigenous, Islamic and western political fortunes of the Yoruba nation [10]. Formation of Egbe Omo Oduduwa Obafemi Awolowo formed the umbrella body for the propagation of the cultural identity and political unity and development of the Yoruba as an integral part of the ethnic nationalities which constituted Nigeria as one colonial political entity Nigeria achieved independence from the UK in 1960, but then experienced political instability as different factions fought to control, with a bitter civil war raging from 1967 to 1970. In 1991 the newly built city of Abuja became Nigerias capital city national development in Nigeria. The Nigerian economy has not experienced much consistent positive growth and the consequences for national development have been dire. The deterioration in the standards of living, public welfare, social service delivery and infrastructure has been extensive

The findings revealed that Nigeria has lost traction in its attempt to achieve nation's development because of politics, ethnicity, socio-economic inequalities, building institutions for democracy and development, appropriate constitutional settlement and corrupted process of recruitment of leaders, among other factors affecting Nigeria's bid to achieve sustainable economic growth and development with particular reference to such sectors as agriculture, manufacturing and mining and quarrying (solid minerals) over the period of 1970-2005 Critical perspectives on Nigeria's socio-political development in the 20th century, (pp.29-40), Lagos, Stebak Books. Akinbi, J.O. (2003): Corruption in the politics and economy of Nigeria: Implications for national development, in Nigerian Journal of Economic History (NJEH), Nos 5 & 6, 122-133 community development that could bring about economic development and poverty alleviation with implications for urban planning and regional development. Over the past decade, interest in poverty alleviation and community development has grown significantly in various parts of Nigeria. In Nigeria, government an a few remarks about the development and growth of infrastructure in Nigeria. Ideally, the timeline from 1999 when civilian administration returned to Nigeria should have provided twenty years of data to assess the growth and development of infrastructure in Nigeria. uch a useful But

Political economy of africa by claude ake pdf

development of Nigeria in no small measure, this regime lasted for 8 years, and due to the political crisis that engulfed the nation as a result of the administration's annulment of the celebrated June 12, 1993, presidential election won by chie Political Party Development in Nigeria CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY. The history of political party in Nigeria can be situated within the context of the two-party and multi-party political system (Adejumobi, 2007), which can be traced to the development of nationalist consciousness, awareness and political movements (Agarah, 2004), that began in Nigeria in the 1930s

2.1 A Brief history of politics in Nigeria: The political history of Nigeria presents itself in three parts, the pre-colonial politics; colonial as well as post-colonial political dispensation. In Pre-colonial times what is known as Nigeria today was just a territory made up of a number of highly influential an In Nigeria, it is one of the many unresolved problems (Ayobolu, 2006) that have critically hobbled and skewed development. It remains a long-term major political and economic challenge for Nigeria (Sachs, 2007). It is a canker worm that has eaten deep in the fabric of the nation The emergence of democratic governance in Nigerian political system in 1999 was a land mark in the political development of Nigeria. After fifteen years of persistent dictatorship, the return of democracy was received with pump and peagentry by civil societies, labour union, civil rights organization etc. Hope was very high in the area of human.

(Pdf) Godfatherism in Nigeria Politics: a Curse or A

  1. Diversification of the economy. To ensure future economic stability in Nigeria, government should engage the services of the proper economic team that can rescue the nation out of the present economic situation and put the national interest first before political interest. Keywords: Nigeria's Economy, Challenges and Way forwar
  2. the impact of conflict and political instability on agricultural investments in mali and nigeria i Mwangi Kimenyi is a senior fellow and director of the Africa Growth Initiative at the Brookings.
  3. The Political and Security Implications of Cross Border Migration between Nigeria and Her Francophone Neighbours, Internal Journal of social Science Tomorrow, Vol. 1, No. 3. Akin Ibidapo-Obe (2008). The Utility of Close-Circuit Television (CCTV) in Intelligence Gathering by Security Operatives in Nigeria
  4. Nigeria's current picture and identity is that replete with a confused, factionalized and extremely corrupt elites with a limited sense of nation. As Ihonvbere puts it, These elites lacking strong and viable base in production, have for long used the state as its primary instrument of primitive accumulation
  5. However, this paper finds that there are major challenges against democratic development in Nigeria which include electoral irregularities and malpractices, inter and intra ethnic rivalries, religious crises and insecurity, poverty, inadequate and weak democratic institutions, political decamping and institutionalized corruption
  6. KEY TERMS: grassroots, third tier, political system, good governance, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: For any responsive and dependable political system, the development of the rural areas must be its major concern. Development will be insignificant in such a political system if the government does not positively affect the life of the people of the.
  7. e the following: What are the socio-economic problems facing Nigeria that could b

The political issue which, has influenced education in Nigeria is equal opportunity, and according to the 1979 constitution, equal opportunity implies: the availability of places for students in the educational system, the social institutional support for attendance and the economic ability of individuals to pursue their education control of political power and the absence of strong countervailing institutions to prevent personal, factional or sectional abuses of power. In an underdeveloped political economy like Nigeria, where access to political power is the primary avenue to affluence and influence for groups and individuals Nigeria which is the most populated country in African continent has suffered many political issues since her independence. These issues have given birth to other national crises including corruption in Nigeria, unemployment, poverty and other negatives. Discussed are political crises/issues in Nigeria, causes and the possible solutions A state will always like to teach its political ideologies in its schools, therefore it can be said that politics shapes education and education in turn modifies politics. This article is an attempt at understanding the relationship between education and politics in Nigeria


Another Look at the Impact of Nigeria's Growing Population on the Country's Development Emmanuel C. Onwuka Department of Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State. Nigeria. Abstract This paper is a contribution to the debate about the impact of Nigeria's growing population on the country's development politics enable political office holders to divert resource meant for development into private pocket without query or molestation (Izueke 2007). Favouristim is one nature of corruption that is contagious and endemic. This is because if bad behaviour prevails in an organization, others easily imitate it It has been observed by scholars and commentators that corruption is a major challenge to social, political, and economic development in any country. The consequences of corruption are unfavorable for the progress of any society. Against this backdrop, this article examines the effects of corruption on the economic development of Nigeria

The state of education in Nigeria has been affected by the persistent change in the educational policy and poor funding. These two factors came to being because of poor political ideology in Nigeria. It is no news that most Nigerian politicians often use sustainable development in education as a central manifesto in their campaigns Exploring themes such as colonial rule and legacies, economic development, political authority and religion, Ejiogu insists that it is critical to examine Africa's diverse nationalities in terms of their geography, social, economic and authority patterns as critical elements that are disregarded in accounts of their political development objective of terrorism is still to impose su cient political and economic pressure on a government so that it concedes to the demands of the terrorist (Enders and Sandler, 1996). The more challenging problem, however, is that the motivation for terrorism in a resource-rich, socially heterogeneous developing country like Nigeria could be.

Political Elites and Development Crises in Nigeri

In Nigeria, the history of political parties is as old as the history of the British imposition and colonization of the largest nation of the black people. It is a phenomenon that had existed even during the British rule and dominance of the political reign of the Niger area people. Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) was the first. Role of social media in economic, political and social development of Nigeria. It is my privilege and honour to give the give the keynote speech at the maiden edition of CKN News Annual Lecture. One element in the contradictions underpinning Nigeria's development crisis is the marginalisation of the youth. This article examines the factors that influence youth restiveness in Nigeria's Niger Delta region. It discusses the impact of conservative elite politics and the oil-centric political economy characterised by the impoverishment, neglect and the repression of the oil-producing.

political leadership and political institutions and excluded from policy development. As a result, political activism of youth is not organized according to formal groupings. wpay2010.pdf 6. There are many poor people in Nigeria, and poverty pushes them into corruption. According to World Bank Group, in 2004, 63.1% of Nigerians were poor. The poverty level increased in 2010. In 2010, 68% of the Nigerian population was estimated to be poor. A person can take bribes to commit crime because he is poor Nigeria is one of the neo colonial and developing nations of the third world. The military ruled Nigeria between 1966 to 1979; 1984 to 1999. Military dominance in Nigeria politics has in no small measure impacted negatively on the political development of Nigeria. Therefore political development o The position of this paper is that the political developments in Nigeria has bearing with Protagoras‟ man is the measure. This dictum simply implies humanism. It is based on this that this work posits that humanism is what underlies and informs the political developments in Nigeria. Hence, it is argued that all the political eras in Nigeria have the well-being of human beings as their. Presently, the operation of Nigeria federalism since independence in 1960 has not yielded meaningful socio-economic and political development. Instead, half-hearted practice of federalism has resulted in over-centralisation of fiscal and political power, creation of unviable and federally dependent state

The Study Mass Media and Political Culture in Nigeria investigated the performance of the Mass Media in the evolution of a sustainable and enduring political culture. The study adopted Participatory and Action Learning Research (PALR). The instruments used in the analysis were the Delphi technique an Abstract. This article explores the rationale for democratisation and political development under the Fourth Republic of Nigeria. In the process of this underlying process, Nigeria is the largest democracy in Africa which experiences unending transition from the military regimes to democratic rules after the cessation of the British rule in 1960 a few remarks about the development and growth of infrastructure in Nigeria. Ideally, the timeline from 1999 when civilian administration returned to Nigeria should have provided twenty years of data to assess the growth and development of infrastructure in Nigeria. uch a useful But


extent political development via democratic consolidation. Political parties feature as most critical aspect of the electoral process. Party politics, nevertheless, has suffered a chequered history in Nigeria. Right from the adoption of the Clifford Constitution of 1922, the Nigerian political space has been littered with the emergenc infrastructural growth and development of Nigeria can be discussed under PESTLES Analysis. Factor affecting infrastructural development can be: political, economic, social, technology, legal, environmental and safety. Political environment has to do with the political stability, policy formulation an INTRODUCTION By the time Nigeria gained its independence, it was entering a period of rapid social and economic change, and many people were quite optimistic about its future. Few people imagined that in the next fifteen years there would be political chaos succeeded by military coup d'état and a thirty-month long civil war. But n be, most Nigerians have considered the civil war era as a period lost by Nigeria to ethnic chairmanism in her search for political stability. The thrust of this paper therefore is to examine ethnic conflict in Nigeria and political instability in the face of competing national interest, using the 1967-1970 Civil War as a basis of evaluation Before the 2016 recession, Nigeria's economy was growing fast at 6.3%. By contrast, before COVID-19 struck, the economy was growing at 2.2%. Inflation was in single digits in 2014, compared to about 12% in 2019. The general government fiscal deficit was 4.4% of GDP in 2019, compared to 1.8% in 2014. Unemployment and underemployment are.

Political Leadership and Challenges of National

picture of her political and economic (under)development and in the process suggests new explanation for underdevelopment and structural inequality in Nigeria linked to colonial legacy and makes some policy recommendations. Keywords: Post colonialism, Identity, Governance, Development ,Nigeria 1. INTRODUCTIO 05 Political Development 41 06 Cultural and Social Development 49 Appendix 54. 4 2017 REPORT SAUDI ARABIA: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC & SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT My first objective is for our country to be a pioneering . and successful global model of excellence, on all fronts Nigeria's Constitutional Development (1922 - 1999) Nigeria has a rich history of Constitutions. From 1922 - 1999 (both years inclusive) Nigeria had a total of nine Constitutions. These included the Clifford Constitution (1922), which introduced elective representation into legislative processes in Nigeria operations. Nigeria's over-arching strategic vision is to create a peaceful, self-reliant, prosperous, strong nation 4. The underlying objective is to apply all elements of national power to ensure physical security, build individual and collective prosperity, cause national development and promote Nigeria influence in regional, continenta The constant drumbeat of headlines about Darfur, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Somalia, as well as the other states in Africa that are beleaguered by political instability have made the causes of failed states and intra-state political conflicts a major issue, both academic and practical. Using Harry Eckstein and Ted R. Gurr's congruence-consonance theoretical framework of regime classification, E.C.

The Military and Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria

3.2 Integration of the SDGs into Nigeria's National Development Frameworks SDGs, to be shortly inaugurated, in order to provide the high-level political and policy guidance and leadership as well as direction and the requisite pressure that will ensure follow-up an Ethnicity or Tribalism in Nigeria's Political Development. Ethnicity had played manifesting roles in Nigerian politics since the pre-colonial era and is arguably one of the important causes of conflict and an overall obstacle to economic development of the country. Sadly, the foundation of Nigeria's party politics was tribally-oriented as. THE ELECTORAL PROCESS AND DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF INEC) CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION. 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Election in Nigeria is an important part of any democratic process that enables the citizenry determine fairly and freely who should lead them at every level of government periodically and take decisions that would determine their economic, political and. community radio: an imperative for development in the niger delta by achimota a. dickson department of crop production technology niger delta university, wilberforce island bayelsa state, nigeria email: biosphere_resources@yahoo.com; phone: 08035508193. a paper presented at the policy dialogue on community radio development in nigeria the role of local government in rural development: a study of warri north local government area of delta state. by olley, omatsola. pg/msc/09/51339 being a research project submitted to the department of political science, faculty of the social sciences, school of postgraduate studies university of nigeria, nsukka

Political Party Development in Nigeria - Project Topic

(PDF) Development Plans and Policies in Nigeria: Observed

Role Of Political Parties In Democratic Governance In Nigeri

THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA-U.S. RELATIONS By John A. Ayam* INTRODUCTION The emergence of Nigeria as an independent country in 1960 and its admission into the United Nations Organization (UN) signaled the beginning of the development of foreign policy positions on key issues of international significance political party development in nigeria: an opinion survey of the three senatorial districts of edo state, nigeria (1999 - 2012) pol86772: public policy and grass root development in nigeria (a critical appraisal of national poverty eradication programme on asari-toru l. g. a of river state Access to education in Nigeria seems constrained at all levels of the system and significant disparities in access are sometimes evident. The level of access to higher education in Nigeria compares poorly with economic competitors such as South Africa (17%), Indonesia (11%) and Brazil (12%) (Task Force, 2000). In the same vein, the Federa political and security challenges persist, new governance and regional risks are also impacting the development of new oil and gas industries. The outlook is not good. The key producers in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria and Angola, face ageing oilfields and a lack of new investments, not to mention the need for considerable reform. Meanwhile, in up

Insecurity in Nigeria: Genesis, Consequences and Panacea

8World Bank (WB), (2013).Nigeria Economic Report. World Bank, Nigeria Economic Report No.1. 9World Development Indicators 10 British Council (2012). 'Gender in Nigeria Report 2012: Improving the lives of girls and women in Nigeria'. 2m 2004 2010 Poor Nigerians 69m 112m The life of Nigerian women is affected by a myriad o Dirty politics: In a bid to acquire the perceived power that comes with holding leadership positions politicians sorry Nigerian leaders will do anything to get this leadership positions and these anything are usually controversial, scandalous and unlawful in nature. Examples are bribing of electoral officials and voters, use of force or threats. Development Report 2007, there are 1.3 billion people in this age group. Close to 85 per‐cents of this over 1.3 billion young men and women live in developing countries; this figure is projected to increase to 89 per cent by 2025. Nigeria's population is predominately young One of the causes of political instability or friction in Nigeria has been the multi-national composition of the country according to onwubiko (2005.38) these ethnic group pulled by accidents of colonial conquest has been completely integrated into a national state before the attainment of independence. As a matter of fact after the withdrawal influence of unifying of colonial power, the. Keywords: women's group, women political participation, economic development, Nigeria, Osun state. Citation: Orisadare MA (2019) An Assessment of the Role of Women Group in Women Political Participation, and Economic Development in Nigeria. Front. Sociol. 4:52. doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2019.0005

(PDF) FOOD INSECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN(PDF) UNDERSTANDING NIGERIAN DEVELOPMENT CRISIS(PDF) Foreign Portfolio Investment on Economic Growth of(PDF) Corporate Social Responsibility: Assessment of Shell